Analysis of the state and dynamic of crimes among minors in russian federation


V.A. Golubeva, Master
Higher school of Economics, Moscow,
vagolubeva_2@edu.hse.ru

Abstract. This article is devoted to analysing of the state and dynamic of crime among minors in Russian Federation. Such careful consideration of theorists and practitioners to the problem of crime is due to the fact that future development of Russian Government depends on state of rising generation. Therefore, primarily, we need in work with reasons, but not with consequences. In this article factors and conditions are indicated, which contribute to commission of juvenile`s crimes, also the basic characteristics of minor offenders are defined on the basis of baseline spheres and theory anomie of Robert Merton, because requires an understanding of the characteristic’s minors at the present stage. The common state and structure of crime among minors in Russian Federation are analyzed with help of statistical data. In the whole there is positive dynamic of the criminal activity of minors, but we cannot approve, that these figures correspond to the real situation in Russian Federation, because there are such factors as reduction of numbers minors of the age criminally punishable, growth of level latency, amnesty in 2013, range of cases solved.

Key words: minor, causes of offences, early prevention, anomie, characteristics of minor offenders, structure of crime, relapse, latency.

   Introduction
   Problem of delinquency among minors is one of the actual problems for the last decades despite the global changes in the all spheres of society.

   Nowdays the diversity of the scientific works in the sphere study of factors and conditions, hand forcing the minors to commit illegal activities, in the sphere study of identity of minors, due to the fact that minors, being vulnerable category, are base for recurrence.

   Most of adults’ delinquents for the first time break the law before emancipation; therefore it doesn’t follow to underestimate the delinquency among minors as threat of national security [16].

   Besides that, the delinquency among minors is getting younger, for example, in 2016 in Russian Federation 28 thousand of minors were registered in the juvenile affairs divisions, who aren’t subject to criminal responsibility due to the failure to reaching the age of criminal responsibility.

   Compare with 2014 their number grew up 6,1 %. In the connection, the question about reduction the age of criminal responsibility to 12 repeatedly was raised by state figures [1].

   The most important attention the scientists attend efficiency the implemented measures, which devoted to prevention the crimes among minors. The question, which interest in the scientists – “How much does the conducting policy consider the features of identity’ minors? Probably, this state policy is developmented or implemented, guiding by existing affairs in our state as base standard?”

   Also it’s necessary to understand, that to create efficiency system of early prevention among minors the work should be carried out with reasons, but not with those effects, which already have. Besides that, the work with reasons must be implemented with full understanding the characteristics of minor’s identity nowadays. And only when the system of prevention will be created, which should be, there won’t be the deficit of necessary information that will allow to manager of situation better.

   Among the most outstanding scientists, which worked with detection the reasons and conditions forcing the minors to commit illegal activities, but also studied the minor’s identity, are: Antonyan, Y. M., Eminov V. E., Dugel, P. S., Kudryavtsev, V. N., Kuznetsova, N. F., Kara-Murza, S. G., Robert Merton, Emile Durkheim, Zmanovskaya E. V., Gilinskiy, Y. I., Kleeberg, J. A., Rimashevskaya, N. M. etc.

   There is the big legislative base, relating to state minors in Russian Federation, and also system the prevention of crimes (including relapses) among minors, namely: The RF Constitution of 12 December 1993, the Convention on the rights of the child (adopted by the UN General Assembly on 20.11.1989, in force for the USSR 15.09.1990), the Civil code of the Russian Federation dated 30.10.1994 № 51, the Family code of the Russian Federation dated 29.11.1995 No. 223, the criminal code of the Russian Federation from 13.06. 1996 № 63, Code of the Russian Federation on administrative offences of 30.12.2001 № 195, Federal law No. 159 of 21.12.1996 "On additional guarantees for the social support of orphans and children left without parental care", Federal law No. 124 of 24.07.1998 "On the basic guarantees of the rights of the child in the Russian Federation", Federal law No. 120 of 24.06.1999 "On the basics of the system for the prevention of child neglect and juvenile delinquency», Resolution of the Government of the Russian Federation of November 27, 2000  No. 896 "On approval of the approximate provisions on specialized institutions for minors in need of social rehabilitation", Order of the Government of the Russian Federation of 22 March 2017 No. 520-R [On approval of the Concept of development of the system of prevention of neglect and juvenile delinquency for the period up to 2020 and the action plan for 2017-2020 for its implementation], Order of the Ministry of internal Affairs of the Russian Federation of 15 October 2013 No. 845 "On approval of the Instructions on the organization of activities of units for juvenile Affairs of the internal Affairs of the Russian Federation", etc.

   Theory and research question
   Before the analyses the state and dynamic of delinquency among minors in Russian Federation, it’s necessary to notice the factors and conditions, forcing minors to commission crimes, and also the most important characteristics the minors, who should be considered during the development the effectiveness system of prevention.

   The scientists in their works try to set the correlation between the state and structure of delinquency and micro factors (family, school, entourage and associated with it psychological and mental processes, etc.) / micro factors (social-economic state, culture-moral and legal aspects) (see for example: V. A. Kurganov, I. V. Kuz'micheva "Forms and causes of deviant behavior of teenagers", Kornakova S. V., S. A. Koryagina "Modern trends in violent juvenile crimes", V. A. Shunyaeva "Socio-demographic characteristics of the individual juvenile offenders: characteristics of the modern state).

   The difference is that depending on the specific of activity, the authors predominantly appeal to different aspects, explaining behaviour the minors and characterizing their features.
   Nevertheless, we can highlight the following base points:
   1.  Psychotherapists / psychiatrists / narcologists say about the direct correlation between illegal behavior of minors and deviations in health (explicit and latent psychopathology).
   2.  Psychologists, studying the identity of minor, firstly, refer to social-psychological factors, considering these factors in macro aspect. Pedagogues share such approach.  Thus the psychologists and pedagogues study the families’ atmosphere; the state of minor in the educational organization; the features communication with friends and so on.
   3.  Sociologists, mostly, equally pay attention to micro environment and macro environment.
   4.  Criminology as social-legal science deserves the special attention. Criminologists due to specific of activity study the delinquency, the identity of delinquent, the reasons and conditions of delinquency, the ways and tools for prevention of delinquency. Criminologists also equally pay attention to micro factors and macro factors [16].

   Due to interdisciplinary and discussion character of topic it’s necessary to consider the achievements of representatives different sciences.   Moreover it’s not possible to call the specific reason, forcing the minor to illegal activities.

   The theory anomie of Robert Merton is specially interest. Robert Merton continued the development concept anomie of Emil Durkheim. Unlike Durkheim Merton assumed, that the state of anomie is not only in certain period’s society life, but is constant state of tension in society.

   Merton considers the anomie as disbalance / inconsistency of social-culture aims and institutionalized tools for achieving it. The disbalance / inconsistency between social-culture aims and institutionalized tools brings the state of anomie in society and, as a result, the deviations in behavior of individuals, in our case the deviations as delicts of minors [9].

   Merton identifies the types of social behavior, focusing on two main ones, namely rebels and innovators. Merton describes the rebels as people, who always try to change social and cultural structure. The rebels categorically don’t accept dominant norms and values.

   As for innovators that Robert Merton studies this type based on class structure.
   Individuals with low social status due to absent the opportunities for achievement of the goals are more committed to deviations. For example, the unstable social-economic situation leads back to reduce of level’ well-being on the territory of the state, at the same time the existing social inequality increases, meanwhile the representatives of low social status orient the behavior on “big wealth”, but they don’t have the opportunity to achieve it without violation laws [9].

   If analyze the social-economic situation in Russia that we can notice following important aspects: the growth of number (%) children at the age up 16 in total number of poor people by age and sex groups from 2012; the growth of share poor households  with children at the age up 18 in total number of households with children at the age 18 from 2013; according to results of the sample survey households’ budgets in 2015  17,9 % answered that it’s difficult to buy the clothes and to pay for housing and communal services, 43,9 % answered that they can’t allow to buy the durable goods.

   Thus, the social-economic situation leaves much to be desired, also the important negatively modifications happened in the period of currency crises in Russian (2014-2015) [10].

   Taking into account the existing social-economic situation, we can return to theory anomie of Robert Merton and find following link: the minor, watching for “best life”, for example, in social media or among other minors, faces with mismatch the goals and legal tools for their achievement, but due to age and features of psyche, can’t perceive the existing state of deals and, in the result, commits illegal acts. We can suppose that for this reason such crimes like theft, robbery, extortion, and robbery are more common types of delinquent behavior.

   From 2015 to 2016 in Russian Federation happened the growth of number are convicted of theft, robbery, extortion at the age 14-17 according to the sentences of the courts which are entered into legal force [10].

   The second important aspect is characteristic such contingent as juvenile offenders. In this situation we should answer on following question: “What features must be taken into account to create the efficiency prevention system?”

   Y.M. Antonyan  was writing that “meticulous theoretical analyses of any type delinquency, its determinants, the formation of well-reasoned, and most importantly, evidence-based measures to prevent it aren’t possible without learning the identity of delinquent. The identity – is the most important host the reasons of commission crimes” [3].

   Due to the interdisciplinary the research topic it’s supposed to highlight the characteristics of juvenile offenders, the account of which is necessary for creation the efficiency system of earlier protection. The identification main characteristics will be based on four core industries (criminology, psychology, clinical psychology , sociology, social demography ).

Chart 1 – Common characteristics of juvenile offenders, the account which is necessary for creation efficiency system of earlier prevention  

The characteristics of juvenile offenders
  •  Sex of minor.
  •  Age of minor.
  •  Family status (state) (or situation in the family, in which the minor lives).
  •  State of iner circle (friends, familiars).
  •  Social-economic status according to Merton.
  •  Personal features (aggressiveness, rudeness, bitterness, loss of self-control).
  •  Mental the anomalies of minor.
  •  The level of education (attitude to study).
  •  Organize the leisure, employment, occupation, interests of minor in free time.

  Source: compiled by the author based on [2,3,4,6,7,14,15,16,17,18]

   After the identification of basic characteristics it’s necessary to clarify what is every of characteristics and how important it is for understanding the identity of juvenile offender.

   1. Sex of minor. The obvious fact is that among juvenile offenders men are more than women. If we turn to the social portrait of delinquency we will see that in 2017 in Russia 13,233 (1, 61%) crimes were committed by men at the age of 14-15, 25,103 (3, 06%) crimes at the age of 16-17, while 1650 (1, 12%) crimes at the age of 14-15 were committed among women, at the age of 16-17 - 2518 (1, 71%) crimes. Moreover frequently species structure of delinquency is due to gender.

   2. Age of minor. Usually criminologists notice two groups of juvenile offenders, relying on age criterion, namely – juvenile and teenagers (age – 14-15) and minors (age – 16-17).  But this is not the reason not to take into account the minors, who have violated the law before the reaching the age of 14. If we again turn to social portrait of delinquency we see that in 2017 in Russia the largest percentage of the crimes are citizens, getting the primary and basic general education (36,98% - men, 35,18% - women). The age is directly related to value attitudes of minor, defines the minors’ interests, wishes, priorities, aims, and needs and so on. Largely the age of minor defines his criminal activity, besides that, frequently different focus. Also the older a teenager becomes, the harder it’s to influence his current value system. “Definitely, the age can’t be the reason of crimes, but, in spite of it, the age-specific features of the certain periods of life, for example, the young age, which, as a rule, has the greatest of difficult life situations and conflicts, contributes to the formation the negative processes in the psyche” [3].

   3. The family state (or situation in the family, in which the minor lives). The characteristic the family of minor is one of the most important positions for understanding the identity of the offender. The family is the first agent of socialization, the major part of life the minor spends in family, assimilating the moral norms / values, general rules of behavior outside. In this context it’s necessary to note such categories of families as dysfunctional families (parents/other official representatives – alcoholic and/or drug addicts, there is different types the violence of minors, there is no stable income), conniving families (the pursuit only financial welfare, absence of trust relationship), the special attention we must pay to minors, who are educated by one parent and also minors, who are educated outside of family (boarding schools, orphanages).

   4. The state of inner circle (friends, acquaintance). The acquaintances are the second important category for understanding the identity of offender. Minor, being vulnerable, can be engaged in criminal environment by the so-called “young adults”, who recently who until belonged to category of minors. And, minor, being in constant interaction with these people, unknowingly will copy the model of their behavior. The most dangerous situation is when the minor has low self-esteem, that allow people, who repeatedly had broken the law, influence on minor, while the minor will perceive “young adult” as leader. Such situation concerns not only “young adults”, but close friends the same age as minor.

   5. Social-economic status according to Merton. At first sight it might seem, that such characteristic like family state, in which minor lives, and social-economic status according to Merton – same. But as for social-economic status according to Merton that the accent is made largely namely on material security of family and, accordingly, the minor as its member. Within this characteristic we can speak about limited access the minor to existing material goods due to low social status [9].

   6. Personal features (aggressiveness, rudeness, bitterness, loss of self-control and so on). Personal features of juvenile minor defines the patterns his behavior with surrounding people. Constant manifestation such features can lead to social deformation and maladaptation of minor that can entail the commission some illegal activities.

   7. Mental the anomalies of minor. There are crimes, which were committed by minors in insane state due to existing mental disorder, which could be the consequence of violence (physical, sexual or psychological) over the minors by parents / other representatives / close relatives. Also such facts like – chronical alcohol addiction of minor, drug addiction, substance abuse we can attribute to Mental the anomalies of minor, because both raise irreversible reactions. Such minor needs in deep correction.

   8. The level of education (attitude to study). A lot of researches and scientists, especially criminologists tend to there is correlation between the level of education and identity of offender. For example, they refer to the fact that degree education of juvenile offender is lower than his peer, which didn’t commit illegal activity. Also the scientists notice that following features attitude to study are characteristic for juvenile offenders: the low motivation to getting knowledge, the bad level assimilation of school program, the constant absenteeism, the absence due discipline, the frequent conflicts with teachers. In 2015 two Candidates of Law, Voronezh Institute of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, were spending sampling survey the criminal cases of minors, who have committed hijacking vehicles. In the result they made the conclusion that “81% minors, who were held to accountable for committing hijacking vehicles, didn’t have the motivation to get the school education (the constant absenteeism, had poor grades, they are characterized negative by class teachers, teachers) [3].

   9. Organize the leisure, employment, occupation, interests of minor in free time. This characteristic is the third important after state of family and close circle. How minor spend free time? The obvious fact is that percentage of children, who spend a lot of time on the street, more subject to committing of illegal activities than someone, who visits the circles and sections. Such minor will not have thoughts and time for committing crimes. However, much depends on the desire of not only the child, but also the parents. The parents can find that ordinary walks with friends are not bad variant and why spend money to organize the leisure of minor, which requires financial costs. Unfortunately, aimless pastime can lead to adverse effects (especially in the holidays).

   In this way it’s necessary to consider all characteristics at creating the programs, plans, strategies on different levels (state, regional and municipal) and making laws in the sphere of prevention crimes among minors. It’s requires a deeper study.

   The analytical part of the study
   The general state and structure of delinquency among minors in Russian Federation can analyze, using statistic data, which are provided by the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, the Federal State Statistics Service, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.

   On the picture 2 is showed the number pre-investigation crimes, have been committed by minors or with their participation, according to data the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation.

   On the pictures – 3, 4 is showed the number identified persons, committed crimes at the age 14-17 (follow the dynamic from 2008 to 2017) according to data the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation.
 

The picture 2 – Dynamic the pre-investigation crimes are being committed by minors or with their participation in Russian Federation [10]


The picture 3 – Dynamic the minors’ delinquency at the age 14-15 [11]


The picture 4 – Dynamic the minors’ delinquency at the age 16-17 [11]

   On the picture 5 are showed the data about number are convicted minors at the age of 14-17 by courts verdicts, have entered into force, according to the Federal State Statistics Service, and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of the Russian Federation.


The picture 5 – The number is convicted at the age 14-17 by courts verdicts, have entered into force [11]

   The data analysis results
   Analyzing the data are presented, we can make following conclusions:

   Firstly, from 2008 there has been decrease the number of pre-investigation crimes, are committed by minors or with their participation, but the growth occurred in 2013 (+2955) and in 2015 (+2284) (picture 2).

   From pre-investigated crimes, were committed by minors or with their participation, according to data of the General Prosecutor's Office of the Russian Federation, from 2012 to 2015, also in 2017 the growth was observed the pre-investigation especially serious crimes, were committed by minors or with their participation. The punishment for such activities – deprivation of liberty for a term of more than 10 years or more severe punishment.

   Researches notice that for juvenile delinquency the violence, unjustified and excessive cruelty, aggressiveness become characteristic.

   As for pre-investigation serious crimes were committed by minors or with their participation, from 2013 we see the dynamic of decline pre-investigation crimes. Also from 2016 we can see the decline pre-investigation crimes moderately severity, were committed by minors or with their participation.

   From 2015 there is a tendency to reduce the number pre-investigation crimes of light punishment, were committed by minors or with their participation. The punishment – the deprivation of liberty up to 3 years. The greatest number of identified individuals, who committed crimes at the age of 14-17, falls on 2013 and 2015.

   Secondly, the greatest numbers of crimes are committed by people at the age of 16-17; moreover the crimes are committed by this category are differed by its thoughtfulness and prudence, that is less characteristic for illegal activities, are committed by people at the age 14-15.

   In 2013, 2015-2017 among all regions of Russian Federation by number of identified individuals, committed crimes at the age 14-17, the leader is - Sverdlovsk region. In these years the second place belongs to Chelyabinsk region.

   Also we should notice the regions, which lead by pre-investigation especially serious crimes, were committed by minors or with their participation (because the indicator on this category by 2017 increases). The first place is Orenburg Region (203), the second place is Chelyabinsk Region (186), and the third place is Sverdlovsk Region (96).

   In Primorsky Territory the growth of pre-investigation especially serious crimes, were committed by minors or with their participation, was observed in 2012 (+4), in 2014 (+10) (the fifth place in the rating for this indicator). By 2015 there was a sharp decline to 29 crimes, but from 2015 to 2017 there was the dynamic of growth (+7).

   Besides that, according to the statistic, in Russian Federation the most common types of delinquent behavior are crimes against property: theft, robbery, extortion, assault. So, analyzing is presented diagram (picture 5), there is an increase the number of convicted at the age of 14-17 according to counts verdicts have entered into force from 2015 to 2016 (thefts +1462, robberies +35, assaults +13) [11].

   Discussion of the results
   Generally, we can see the positive dynamic in the sphere of criminal activity of minors, because it’s obvious the reduction identified persons, committed the crimes at the age of 14-17, also the reduction number pre-investigation crimes, committed by minors or with their participation (with the exception of pre-investigation especially serious crimes).

   A lot of researches, experts and scientists suppose that these figures don’t fully correspond to the real situation on the territory of Russian Federation and adhere to opinion that role plays not only and not so much demographic situation, for example, the reduction number minors of criminal age, living in Russian Federation, but also the growth level latency of crimes among minors.

  “According to the practice for recently some years the number of registered delinquency in Russia declines, but in contrast to reduction there is the growth of number of complaints, statements, and other information about what happened ... were registered by law enforcements. There is a gap every year” [5]. Maximum latency is characteristic for crimes moderately severity and less serious crimes.

   Unlike foreign countries, where special attention is paid to the problem the latency, the special methods have been developed the detection and evaluation of latency delinquency (for example, in England such method like the method of research victimization of a population using victimization surveys is used more often, in USA the method of research victimization is used with official criminal statistics).

   In Russia the measures to minimize the latency are embryonic and frequently such methods are used like collection of information, and its subsequent analysis of statements, letters, complaints; comparison of data received from government bodies; expert method

   Besides that, it’s necessary to understand that the crime can be committed by minor in one year, but considered in other day (because the delinquent was found later, accordingly the crime was solved later). Thus there is scatter.

   The sharp increase number of crimes, were committed by minors at the age of 14-17, after positive dynamic for some years, can be due to amnesty in connection with the 20th anniversary of the Constitution of the Russian Federation.

   If we analyze state and structure of delinquency among minors in 2015 we can suggest that the growth is due to, firstly, economic crises (reduction real wages, pensions, price increase, unstable dynamic of national currency), which began in 2013 (a lot of analytics say that it’s echoes of financial-economic crisis in 2008).

   Thus, social-economic situation escalated, in the result the living standards of people decreased, and firstly affected such vulnerable groups like: children without parents, also children in care; family with a lot of children; mothers, who self-raising children and other categories.

   Despite of current situation, need in satisfaction the aspirations are still, and individuals as effective tool of its achieving use measures of criminal nature. But it’s necessary to understand that anomie isn’t single premise of deviant behavior.

   Conclusion
   Thus, there are a lot of factors (macrofactors and microfactors) and conditions, which contributing to committing crimes among minors; therefore it’s necessary to create the complex system early prevention crimes among minors with aim prevention of committing the crimes for the first time by a teenager, also relapses.  

   It’s necessary to work, firstly, with reasons, but for it the features of identity minors must be considered nowadays.

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